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These include intermediate-mass stars such as the sun, with half to eight times the mass of the sun, high-mass stars that are more than eight solar masses, and low-mass stars a tenth to half a solar mass in size.
The greater a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan generally is. Objects smaller than a tenth of a solar mass do not have enough gravitational pull to ignite nuclear fusion — some might become failed stars known as brown dwarfs.
An intermediate-mass star begins with a cloud that takes about , years to collapse into a protostar with a surface temperature of about 6, F 3, C.
After hydrogen fusion starts, the result is a T-Tauri star , a variable star that fluctuates in brightness. This star continues to collapse for roughly 10 million years until its expansion due to energy generated by nuclear fusion is balanced by its contraction from gravity, after which point it becomes a main-sequence star that gets all its energy from hydrogen fusion in its core.
The greater the mass of such a star, the more quickly it will use its hydrogen fuel and the shorter it stays on the main sequence.
After all the hydrogen in the core is fused into helium, the star changes rapidly — without nuclear radiation to resist it, gravity immediately crushes matter down into the star's core, quickly heating the star.
This causes the star's outer layers to expand enormously and to cool and glow red as they do so, rendering the star a red giant.
Helium starts fusing together in the core, and once the helium is gone, the core contracts and becomes hotter, once more expanding the star but making it bluer and brighter than before, blowing away its outermost layers.
After the expanding shells of gas fade, the remaining core is left, a white dwarf that consists mostly of carbon and oxygen with an initial temperature of roughly , degrees F , degrees C.
Since white dwarves have no fuel left for fusion, they grow cooler and cooler over billions of years to become black dwarves too faint to detect.
Our sun should leave the main sequence in about 5 billion years. A high-mass star forms and dies quickly.
These stars form from protostars in just 10, to , years. While on the main sequence, they are hot and blue, some 1, to 1 million times as luminous as the sun and are roughly 10 times wider.
When they leave the main sequence, they become a bright red supergiant, and eventually become hot enough to fuse carbon into heavier elements.
After some 10, years of such fusion, the result is an iron core roughly 3, miles wide 6, km , and since any more fusion would consume energy instead of liberating it, the star is doomed, as its nuclear radiation can no longer resist the force of gravity.
When a star reaches a mass of more than 1. The result is a supernova. Gravity causes the core to collapse, making the core temperature rise to nearly 18 billion degrees F 10 billion degrees C , breaking the iron down into neutrons and neutrinos.
In about one second, the core shrinks to about six miles 10 km wide and rebounds just like a rubber ball that has been squeezed, sending a shock wave through the star that causes fusion to occur in the outlying layers.
The star then explodes in a so-called Type II supernova. If the remaining stellar core was less than roughly three solar masses large, it becomes a neutron star made up nearly entirely of neutrons, and rotating neutron stars that beam out detectable radio pulses are known as pulsars.
If the stellar core was larger than about three solar masses, no known force can support it against its own gravitational pull, and it collapses to form a black hole.
A low-mass star uses hydrogen fuel so sluggishly that they can shine as main-sequence stars for billion to 1 trillion years — since the universe is only about Still, astronomers calculate these stars, known as red dwarfs , will never fuse anything but hydrogen, which means they will never become red giants.
Instead, they should eventually just cool to become white dwarfs and then black dwarves. Although our solar system only has one star, most stars like our sun are not solitary, but are binaries where two stars orbit each other, or multiples involving even more stars.
In fact, just one-third of stars like our sun are single, while two-thirds are multiples — for instance, the closest neighbor to our solar system, Proxima Centauri , is part of a multiple system that also includes Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B.
Still, class G stars like our sun only make up some 7 percent of all stars we see — when it comes to systems in general, about 30 percent in our galaxy are multiple , while the rest are single, according to Charles J.
Lada of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Binary stars develop when two protostars form near each other. One member of this pair can influence its companion if they are close enough together, stripping away matter in a process called mass transfer.
If one of the members is a giant star that leaves behind a neutron star or a black hole, an X-ray binary can form, where matter pulled from the stellar remnant's companion can get extremely hot — more than 1 million F , C and emit X-rays.
If a binary includes a white dwarf, gas pulled from a companion onto the white dwarf's surface can fuse violently in a flash called a nova.
At times, enough gas builds up for the dwarf to collapse, leading its carbon to fuse nearly instantly and the dwarf to explode in a Type I supernova, which can outshine a galaxy for a few months.
Astronomers describe star brightness in terms of magnitude and luminosity. The magnitude of a star is based on a scale more than 2, years old, devised by Greek astronomer Hipparchus around BC.
He numbered groups of stars based on their brightness as seen from Earth — the brightest ones were called first magnitude stars, the next brightest were second magnitude, and so on up to sixth magnitude, the faintest visible ones.
Nowadays astronomers refer to a star's brightness as viewed from Earth as its apparent magnitude, but since the distance between Earth and the star can affect the light one sees from it, they now also describe the actual brightness of a star using the term absolute magnitude, which is defined by what its apparent magnitude would be if it were 10 parsecs or The magnitude scale now runs to more than six and less than one, even descending into negative numbers — the brightest star in the night sky is Sirius , with an apparent magnitude of Luminosity is the power of a star — the rate at which it emits energy.
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Average Stars Become White Dwarfs For average stars like the Sun, the process of ejecting its outer layers continues until the stellar core is exposed.
This dead, but still ferociously hot stellar cinder is called a White Dwarf. White dwarfs, which are roughly the size of our Earth despite containing the mass of a star, once puzzled astronomers - why didn't they collapse further?
What force supported the mass of the core? Quantum mechanics provided the explanation. Pressure from fast moving electrons keeps these stars from collapsing.
The more massive the core, the denser the white dwarf that is formed. Thus, the smaller a white dwarf is in diameter, the larger it is in mass!
These paradoxical stars are very common - our own Sun will be a white dwarf billions of years from now. White dwarfs are intrinsically very faint because they are so small and, lacking a source of energy production, they fade into oblivion as they gradually cool down.
This fate awaits only those stars with a mass up to about 1. Above that mass, electron pressure cannot support the core against further collapse.
Such stars suffer a different fate as described below. White Dwarfs May Become Novae If a white dwarf forms in a binary or multiple star system, it may experience a more eventful demise as a nova.
Nova is Latin for "new" - novae were once thought to be new stars. Today, we understand that they are in fact, very old stars - white dwarfs. If a white dwarf is close enough to a companion star, its gravity may drag matter - mostly hydrogen - from the outer layers of that star onto itself, building up its surface layer.
When enough hydrogen has accumulated on the surface, a burst of nuclear fusion occurs, causing the white dwarf to brighten substantially and expel the remaining material.
Within a few days, the glow subsides and the cycle starts again. Sometimes, particularly massive white dwarfs those near the 1.
Supernovae Leave Behind Neutron Stars or Black Holes Main sequence stars over eight solar masses are destined to die in a titanic explosion called a supernova.
A supernova is not merely a bigger nova. In a nova, only the star's surface explodes. In a supernova, the star's core collapses and then explodes.